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Phonology Example: One [14 Mar 2004|06:13pm]

indyonaro
As you may have realized, there is as of yet no audio representation of Quenya in this community. This changes today. I wrote a tiny little fragment of poetry for this very purpose, and I will feel free to answer any and all questions listeners may have. The file is in .wav format, and it is about 1.24 MB in size.

Yáviëlmë

Anar lindessë lantanë lancavë
Ve ára, er tindómenna ahyala
Oronti luininnar, nu ilwë nulla,
Yáves yáví Atanion, i nar firië.


Try pronouncing this aloud for yourself. Perhaps recording yourself is even a good idea. When you have finished, click here to listen and compare: Yáviëlmë
á lasta ana 15 >> á quetë

Lesson 5: Demonstratives and Possessive Pronominal Suffixes [03 Mar 2004|08:20pm]

indyonaro
I finally have a free moment to sit down and concentrate on something I love to do! I am curious about the lessons, as the comments have nearly ceased to exist in lessons after number one. Hopefully the numbers will pick up again; it's not encouraging to keep this up if I am not helping anyone! Having said that, let's move into the realm of demonstratives and possessives.

The reason that I choose to merge these two topics into one lesson is they both function as determiners, sort of like adjectives. There are four demonstratives in the English language: this, that, these, and those. "This" and "these" are the singular and plural demonstratives used for determining nouns near to the speaker (e.g., "this book" means the book is near to the speaker). Conversely, "that" and "those" describe singular and plural nouns that are far away from the speaker (e.g., "those books" are farther away than "these books"). All of these words add specificity to a noun because they determine which noun is being spoken about; for example, the construction "a book," which employs a nondefinite article “a,” is far less specific than a construction like "that book," which employs a determiner, no? Still perplexed? Let me put it this way: there are two books in a room, and this series of phrases references the books:
“A book” is a phrase employing a nondefinite article referring to one of the books in the room.

“This book” is a phrase employing a demonstrative that denotes the location of the book in relation to the speaker. In this case, it is near the speaker, so whatever book is nearest the person to whom we are speaking is the one that he or she is talking about.
Quenya is the same way in its distinctions, though its placement of demonstratives varies from that of English. Either way, these are the four demonstratives used in noun specification as determiners:
Sina "this" >> Sinë "these"
Enta "that" >> Entë "those"
It is important to realize that the word "that" has four uses in English: 1) It may function as a determiner (used as a noun modifier or adjective) that specifies which noun is being discussed. 2) It may be used as a demonstrative pronoun, in which case it replaces the principle noun of a phrase and functions in its place. 3) It may be used as a relative pronoun (like who, whom, whose, and which), which I shall discuss in a later lesson. 4) Or it may also be used as a subordinator, meaning it connects what would normally be two independent clauses (a clause being defined as any construction with a subject, tense, and verb) by rendering one clause dependent (at which point it is termed a "subordinate clause"). For example, "It was great that he came" consists of two clauses, or elements: "It was great" and "that he came." We can identify the first clause as independent because it has the ability to stand alone, whereas the second clause cannot. The reason for the second clause's inability to stand alone is "that," for once it is removed, the grammatical independent clause "he came" is left over. Another subordinate conjunction in English is "because" (e.g., "Because he came, it was great"). The point of this explanation is not to confuse you, it is merely to point out the fact that a demonstrative is not a relative pronoun or a subordinator, but its own distinct part of language. Helge Fauskanger's native tongue is not English, and his examination of demonstratives in Tolkien's notes has many muddled axplanations, which I have attempted to clarify.

Demonstratives tend to occur after the noun they modify, meaning that, in effect, an elf would say "book this" rather than "this book." Most modern grammars place demonstrative pronouns like "this" and "that" under the umbrella term "adjective," which is simple enough for our purposes. For this reason it is commonly agreed upon among Quenya scholars that sina "this" and enta "that" should be declined as adjectives that agree in number with the noun(s) they modify. Hence, "this book" would be rendered parma sina and "these books" would be rendered parmar sinë, sina being declined for the adjectival plural (remember lesson 4?).

Mr. Fauskanger also includes the orthographically similar word tana in the demonstrative section of his lessons, but the reference he makes to the Etymologies describes the word as being "anaphoric," meaning it refers to something previously mentioned. Hence, it is only acceptable to use tana for a specific reference to something in context which has already been discussed. For example, “On my way to the store, I tripped over a rock. That was annoying.” What exactly is annoying? The fact that whoever is speaking tripped over a rock. “That” refers back to the aforementioned incident, and this is the usage which corresponds with tana.

Another instance in the English language in which “that” is used in an anaphoric sense is seen in relative clauses, which redefine the subject of a clause by mentioning it again (e.g., "The bike that I borrowed is gone" contains the relative clause "that I borrowed," which redefines "bike" by answering the question "which bike?"). Any conjecture is therefore slightly ambiguous when referring to Tolkien’s purposes, but I will treat tana as a true demonstrative pronoun, not as a relative pronoun, in future lessons.

Speaking of the future, the specialized demonstrative yana "that" is used when referencing something that is to occur in the future. Conversely, the aforementioned enta "that" is used to reference something in the past. It must be observed that enta is to be used in all general cases requiring "that," as has been said, as well as in constructions referring to the past. Yana is only used when referring to the future, making its appearances rare.

Some of you may have noticed, especially in the above discussion concerning tana, that sometimes demonstrative pronouns function more like pronouns in a construction than they do adjectives, meaning they replace nouns. For example, in "this is mine," the word "this" is hardly determining which noun; it is acting in place of a noun. It can be assumed that words like sina may be used and declined as nouns in Quenya, just as they can be used and declined as adjectives. Hence, sina "this" would become sinar, as in sinar nar parmanyar "these are my books," when functioning as the subject of a clause.

The word parmanyar brings us to another special group of specifiers called possessive pronominal suffixes. This is merely a fancy way of saying "possessive pronoun endings," and it sounds much harder than it is. The sole means of possessive suffixes in a clause is to specify to whom/what some noun belongs. The English possessive pronouns are: my/mine, your/yours (s. and pl.), his, her/hers, its, our/ours, and their/theirs. The corresponding Quenya pronouns occur as suffixes, or morphemes, and must be committed to memory! They are:
First person:
Singular -nya "my"
Plural -lma "our" (exclusive), -lva "our" (inclusive)*
Dual -mma "our"
Second Person:
Singular and plural -lya "your”
Third Person:
Singular -rya "his, her, its”
Plural -nta "their"

*The terms “inclusive” and “exclusive” require some explanation. Both types of pronominal endings relay the message that whoever is speaking is part of a group (3 or more persons), but at that point the two differ. “Exclusive” pronominal endings are used when speaking for a group which is but a small part of a larger group, meaning the noun in question emphatically belongs to the speakers and not to the others present. Conversely, “inclusive” pronominal endings are used when all present persons are being spoken for. The dual form is used when referring to two people, and it does not designate whether the meaning is exclusive or inclusive.
When a possessive pronominal ending is added to a noun, the noun must always be singular in form, just as it is with case endings. Pluralization of the noun occurs after the possessive morpheme is added; hence, parmanya “my book” becomes parmanyar, not the awkward pamarnya*. Another matter of importance when suffixing the possessive morphemes to Quenya nouns is cacophonous clusters, or “ugly letter combinations.” For instance, “my father” translates as atarinya rather than atarnya, as the -rn- cluster is difficult to pronounce. As is illustrated with the above case, an -i- is inserted between two dissonant (harsh-sounding) consonants to aid pronunciation.

Exercises:

Use determiners to differentiate the following nouns and their plural forms. This means there will be four answers for each number (two singular and two plural). Be sure to include what each one means:

1. Aran “king”
2. Rocco “horse”
3. Vendë “maiden
4. Fëa “spirit”
5. Tasar “willow”
6. Hen “eye”#
7. Yén “[Elvish] year”

# Be careful of stem variation!

Once you have finished the first exercise, suffix the pronominal morphemes to the singular and plural forms of the seven nouns listed. Be sure to include the plural forms of these as well as the singular forms and meanings. Good luck!
á lasta ana 10 >> á quetë

Lesson 4: Adjectives [03 Mar 2004|08:19pm]

indyonaro
Adjectives are a generally straight-forward part of the Quenya grammar, so you needn’t fear this lesson at all. As we have said, nouns identify persons, places, things, or ideas; adjectives serve to describe all of these things. Speakers of English tend to be extremely familiar with adjectives and have no trouble using them. Quenya’s adjectival system operates a little differently, but it is easy to understand. First of all, realize that the adjective is generally used in three ways in English: 1) As a simple noun modifier which occurs before the noun in a noun phrase (e.g., “the blue car,” in which “blue” is the adjective). 2) As a title or reference (e.g., “Marvin the Magnificent,” in which “magnificent” is an adjective functioning to describe “Marvin,” there linked by an article, “the”). 3) In conjunction with a verb called a copula (e.g., “be,” “seem,” “become”), which I will discuss in later lessons.

Quenya’s system is the exact same, but its word order is somewhat different. Firstly, it seems that most cases from corpus texts provide us with examples that display adjectives following the nouns they modify, rather than preceding them, as in English. Therefore, though it is not wholly unacceptable to place an adjective before a noun to describe it, it is not preferred to its opposite in Quenya texts. A feature of Quenya which does not appear in English is noun/adjective agreement in number. What does this mean? Simply put, it means that singular nouns have adjectives with singular endings, and plural nouns have adjectives with plural endings. Here are some examples taken from Helge K. Fauskanger’s description of the language at Ardalambion:
Sg. vanya vendë "a beautiful maiden" >> Pl. vanyë vendi "beautiful maidens"
Sg. carnë parma "a red book" >> Pl. carni parmar "red books"
Sg. laurëa lassë "a golden leaf" >> Pl. laurië lassi "golden leaves"
Sg firin casar "a dead dwarf" >> Pl. firini casari "dead dwarves"
These four examples illustrate the declension of all four types of Quenya adjectives; represented are those of the A-Class, E-Class, EA-Class and Consonant-Class, the latter of which is very uncommon. Note the plural forms of each ending and memorize them!

In the case of adjectives occurring as titles, such as Elendil voronda “Elendil the Faithful,” the word order is the same as that of normal constructions, but the presence of a proper noun renders the English phrase differently, as “faithful Elendil” sounds awkward. It should also be noted that these extended noun phrases—whether they include two nouns joined by a conjunction, a noun and an adjective, or a noun, adverb and adjective—always follow the rule of “the last declinable word.” What does that mean, you ask? It means that, should you require a case ending for the noun in your phrase, the ending is attached to whatever the last word in the phrase happens to be. For example, in Elendil vorondonna “to Elendil the Faithful,” the allative case ending -nna is appended to the last part of the noun phrase, which in this case is the adjective voronda. In the event that a case ending fits awkwardly onto the last word, revert back to the principle noun of the phrase. In a noun phrase with a single noun, the choice is obvious; however, in a compound noun phrase, a phrase containing two or more nouns, the last noun is declined, as per the “last declinable word” rule.
Thus ends this relatively short lesson. In later lessons we shall learn about the third use of adjectives, which is their pairing with a copula. For now, please complete the following exercises:

Exercises:

This exercise is a rather open-ended one. Find adjectives and nouns you like and pair them to create both singular and plural noun phrases to create a total of eight phrases. These can be as simple as “the blue water” and as complicated as “the terrible weather and gloomy forecast.” Good luck!
á quetë

Lesson 3: Noun Cases (Part 2) [13 Jan 2004|08:21pm]

indyonaro
We learned in the previous lesson that Quenya is an inflected language, meaning noun cases change via declension (i.e., adding affixes). Just as there are nine case endings for the singular noun forms in Quenya, there are endings to cover the plural, partitive plural, and dual forms of nouns as well.

Something that is important, nay, extremely important, to remember about the plural case endings is this: while one may expect that a noun is declined by number and then by case when dealing with plurals, this is not true for Quenya. The plural forms of the Quenya cases all attach to the singular form of the noun, except for the genitive plural, which attaches to the plural form of the noun. While this sounds like a lot of grammatical gunk, it is really a rather simple concept to remember: all case endings (singular, plural, part. pl., and dual forms) attach to the singular form of the noun they modify. The only exception is the plural genitive ending. Now that I have repeated it and everyone is fully aware, we can move on.

The first group of case endings is the simple plural. These nouns take slightly modified endings which indicate that they are plural. If a noun terminating in a consonant is to be declined using a plural case ending also beginning in a consonant, an -i- is inserted between the noun and case ending to facilitate pronunciation. The insertion of -i- is unique to the plural number; the other numbers use differing vowels (cf. -e- in the singular). Please note below that the nominative case is not represented; we learned how to change nominative noun number in Lesson 1. These are the case endings for the plural:

Acc. -i
Dat. -in
Gen. -on (remember to add this to the plural form)
Poss. -iva
Abl. -(i)llon/-(i)llor*
Loc. -(i)ssen
All. -(i)nnar
Inst. -inen

*Both forms have been found in mature Quenya, so either one is quite acceptable.

The partitive plural also utilizes a series of endings which are added to the singular form of the noun being declined. The genitive behaves and follows suit in this situation, meaning its ending is added to the singular. The partitive plural uses an -e- in between nouns and endings if it is needed, just like the singular. These are the endings for the partitive plural:

Acc. -(e)lí
Dat. -(e)lin
Gen. -(e)lion
Poss. -(e)líva
Abl. -(e)lillo(n)**
Loc. -(e)lisse(n)**
All. -(e)linna(r)**
Inst. -(e)línen

**The terminal consonants seem to have been optional in mature Quenya. Anyone who knows a lick about semantics will tell you that languages tend to mutate into simplicity by dropping endings, losing cases, etc. because native speakers are often lax in the area of grammaticality. This paradoxically creates complexity in a language, as we see with Quenya, and it gives a feeling of reality to languages considered to be merely "constructed". Are we not defying this view of Quenya? I certainly hope my efforts are well-spent in thinking so. Personally, I feel that the consonant endings make the cases look more differentiated from their counterparts, so I always use them. It is your choice.

Onward! to the nightmares that are dual case endings. As was seen in the plural and part. pl., the dual has a regular set of declensions unique to its purpose. However, there is also another set of case endings which, though Helge Fauskanger tends to treat them less, are extremely important to emphasize. These will be referred to as the irregular dual. I am deviating slightly from Fauskanger's representation because I personally feel that it is important to represent the dual in two forms rather than in one convoluted form. What is simple to remember is that nouns taking dual forms in -t adhere strictly to the regular system of dual declension mentioned above. It is the -u duals which break the mould. Duals formed in -u are described, as we noted in Lesson 1, as nouns having t or d as their last consonant. The u displaces final vowels in nominative forms if they exist (e.g., alda >> aldu, not aldau*), and this is the form Tolkien chose to distinguish the two apparent forms of the dual noun declensions. There are certain other instances in which -u is preferred over -t, and these seem to be instances of euphony (i.e., what sounds good). For example, nouns ending in -r would take the ending -u as opposed to the awkward -t. You must use your best judgement here. To form the -u duals, the nominative dual form of the noun is used as a stem to which endings are added. The endings are not the distinguished dual endings, as one might expect, but the singular case endings! The only exceptions to this rule are the dative and genitive, which use the endings -en and a nondisplacing*** -o, respectively.

***This is a term I've coined for this specific ending because it attaches itself to a terminal vowel where normally it would take the place of that vowel (e.g., alda >> aldu >> alduo).

To review: the irregular dual endings are the singular endings excepting the dative and genitive. Here, then, are the regular dual case endings, appearing with the optional (e) in the event of illegal consonant clusters a posteriori noun and case endings:

Acc. ****
Dat. -(e)nt
Gen. -(e)to
Poss. -(e)twa
Abl. -(e)lto
Loc. -(e)tsë
All. -(e)nta
Inst. -(e)nten

****There can be no distinct accusative in the case of the -t duals, because they terminate in a consonant.

This has been the most difficult lesson yet, so take a while to absorb and memorize these rules before attempting to apply them.

Exercises:

1. alda "tree"
2. nat "thing"
3. wilwarin# "butterfly"
4. tyaro "actor/agent"
5. atar "father"
6. ciryatur "ship lord/admiral"

# This word is included because of a very special thing called stem variation, in which the PE (i.e., Primitive Elvish) root word shines through when certain nouns, verbs, etc. change slightly in form. The stem to which endings are added is wilwarind-. I will include more of these words in the future, so be mindful.
á lasta ana 6 >> á quetë

[08 Jan 2004|05:19pm]

indyonaro
Hello everyone! I am extremely sorry at not having posted lessons in forever, but my vacation was far busier than was originally planned, and I really needed the rest. Next week I begin exams, and afterwards this community will be back in ful swing. I trust you all have the first few lessons down pat!

-Your loving Moderator.
á lasta ana 2 >> á quetë

[14 Dec 2003|01:48am]

indyonaro
Hello. This is just a reminder that I remember the community exists and that I am still working on it. I have not lost momentum. However, I am extremely busy and will be so for the next few weeks. I will attempt to post the mini-lesson on articles and the second part of the lesson on cases soon, but afterwards there is going to be a gap. Just bear with me and I'll keep going.
á lasta ana 4 >> á quetë

Quenya Lesson 2: Nouns (Cases Part 1) [08 Dec 2003|08:31pm]

indyonaro
Let me begin by saying that this is one of the most difficult lessons. I had orginally considered splitting this into two lessons, but if you take your time to read and absorb the information, this should make sense to you. It will not come immediately! It would be wise to make index cards with case endings, also. For the purposes of keeping this as easy to understand as possible, I will only be addressing singular noun cases in this lesson.

What is very difficult for many students of Quenya to understand is that it's an inflected language. In an inflected language, affixes (i.e. prefixes and suffixes) are added to words to change cases, whereas an agglutinating language, which English tends to be classified as, adds extra words to achieve the same meanings.

This shift between language types is not aided by the difference in cases. In English there are two cases: nominative and objective. A word in the nominative case normally serves as a subject of a sentence and the objective as the direct/indirect object. In English, actual nouns do not change forms when their cases change; rather, parts of speech, such as prepositions, are added. The only words that change when shifting from the nominative to the objective in English are pronouns (both personal and relative, though some forms are unaffected).

Quenya has nine cases. Do not let this bother you! In a way Quenya is more organized because because it defines its cases strictly through the addition of affixes, as opposed to confusing jumbles of words. Here are the nine cases of Quenya, along with short explanations of each:

The Quenya Cases (Singular):

Nominative: This is the uninflected (no affixes added) form of the noun, which usually appears as the subject of a sentence.
Accusative: Often acts as the direct object, showing action toward or change of condition/location (i.e. changing from a solid to a liquid). This case is formed by lengthening a noun's final vowel, if there is any. If the noun ends in a consonant, the word is said to have no distinct accusative.
Dative: Often acts as the indirect object, meaning 'for, to.' It is important to remember that the dative differs from the accusative in that it only receives action indirectly; it is never acted upon or directly changed (hence the name 'indirect'). This case is formed by adding '-n' to the end of a noun ending in a vowel and '-en' to a noun ending in a consonant.
Genitive: This case is similar to the possessive case, but instead of showing direct possession, it literally means 'to originate from.' This case is formed by adding '-o' to the end of a noun, and it carries the meaning 'of.'
Possessive: This case obviously shows posession. It is formed by adding a '-va' to nouns ending in vowels and '-wa' to nouns ending in consonants.
Ablative: This case carries the meaning 'from' or 'out of.' It is formed by adding '-llo' to the end of a noun ending in a vowel and '-ello to one ending in a consonant.
Locative: This case means 'on' or 'in,' and is formed by adding '-ssë' to the end of a noun ending in a vowel and '-essë' to one ending in a consonant.
Allative: This noun case means 'to,' 'into,' or 'upon,' and can be formed by adding '-nna' to the end of a noun ending in a vowel and '-enna' to a noun ending in a consonant.
Instrumental: This case denotes an instrument with which something is accomplished or a direct cause of something (i.e. because of x, y happened, in which 'because of x' is instrumental). It is formed by adding '-nen' to the end of a noun ending in a vowel and '-enen to one ending in a consonant.

Take a deep breath, calm yourself, and reread the passage once more. You could also frantically search for your flash cards, though they can wait until later. For now, I give you the fully inflected singular forms of the noun olwa.

A fully-inflected noun:

Nom. olwa [a branch]
Acc. olwá [to a branch]
Dat. olwan [for a branch]
Gen. olwo [of a branch; the final a is displaced by the '-o' ending to facilitate pronunciation. remember dual forms?]
Poss. olwava [a branch's]
Abl. olwallo [out of, from a branch]
Loc. olwassë [on, in a branch]
All. olwanna [to, upon a branch]
Inst. olwanen[with, using, because of a branch]

Exercises:

List all of the cases, what they mean, and what ending they take. Please take the time to make the flash cards or copy the notes and memorize them before completing the exercise. Once you feel at least semi-confident in your abilities to inflect a singular noun, apply your knowledge to these six nouns:

1.hwesta [breeze]
2.masta [bread]
3.taurë [forest]
4.nyerë [grief, sorrow]
5.heri [lady]
6.arin [morning]

Note: I am a very busy person, so I will likely be spacing these lessons a day or two apart from now on. This will give everyone a chance to read and hopefully learn the information. The third lesson will discuss inflecting the three plural forms of Quenya nouns learned in Lesson 1. For any newcomers, Lesson 1 can be found by using the "browse the lessons" link at the top of the page or by exploring the community. Good luck!
á lasta ana 41 >> á quetë

Quenya Mini-lesson: Special characters and phonology [07 Dec 2003|04:03pm]

indyonaro
Quenya makes use of many characters we are not used to in English, and some people have had trouble with this. For this reason I have updated the userinfo of this community with a link to a file containing all of the information needed to produce the characters required to write in Quenya on your computers. I would suggest that all of you print this out and leave it by your computer for quick reference purposes.

Speaking of special characters, I would like to call everyone's attention to an extremely important part of The Lord of the Rings: Appendix E. There is contained within the appendix a wealth of information about each letter of Tolkien's languages, and though he often fell short of his own rules, those words are gospel to those who wish to speak his languages correctly. So read that and commit it to memory.

I hope to make use of audioposting in the near future to help those struggling with Quenya phonology to speak it correctly, but that may take time. I would also like to inform everyone that, as time allows, I will add an intended curriculum to the userinfo section so that any interested parties may choose topics and submit their own lessons for approval.

I will continue to include small excersises at the end of each lesson as a review, and I hope to give larger tests every five lessons to aid the learning process. These can be done via-email easily, so I can post the test here and you can e-mail your answer instead of posting it, so everyone will have a chance.

Remember two things when participating in the community: I am open to suggestion and correction; none of us is perfect. And, more importantly, have fun with this!

-MJK
á quetë

Nouns: Number [07 Dec 2003|11:24am]

indyonaro
Most of us begin with nouns and numbers when we learn a language, and basic vocabulary is essential to speaking/writing any language. Before I begin the lesson, I'd like to point out that flash cards are the best tool for vocabulary. Vocabulary is strictly memorization, and flash cards are easily made, easily carried, and easily studied. I would suggest that everyone participating in the lessons makes vocabulary flash cards and studies them regularly to expand his/her vocabulary.

Today I would like to begin with nouns and their numbers (we'll come to cardinal/ordinal numbers as a side lesson). We all know from English (or Schoolhouse Rock) that nouns are persons, places, things, or ideas. This is no different in Quenya. Quenya nouns also have singular and plural forms, though there are three plural forms in Quenya, as opposed to one in English. These forms are nothing to stress over, they are simply more specific than the English plural. In Quenya, there is a plural form to denote a pair of something, a few of something, and many of something.

The form denoting a pair is called the dual form. This can mean either a natural pair (i.e. eyes) or a regular pair (i.e. sister ships). The dual is formed by adding a -t to the end of a noun unless its last consonant is t or d, in which case a -u is added to the end. If the noun ends in t or d and a vowel (e.g. alda) the -u takes the final vowel's place. For the purpose of this lesson, nouns with dual forms in -t will be called regular, and those with dual forms in -u will be called irregular. Here are four examples:
Cirya "ship" >> Ciryat "a pair of ships"
Runya "footprint" >> Runyat "a pair of footprints"
Alda "tree" >> Aldu "a pair of trees"
Anda "gate" >> Andu "a pair of gates"

The plural denoting a few of something, or a portion of a whole, is called the partitive plural. This form takes the ending -li for nouns ending in vowels and -eli for those ending in consonants. Here are two examples:
Yendë "daughter" >> Yendeli "a few daughters"
Núnatan "Dúnadan/Westman" >> Núnataneli "a few Dúnedain/Westmen"

The nominative (regular) plural, which denotes many, also comes in two forms. Nouns ending in a consonant or form plurals in -i (the -i takes the place of in such cases, naturally). Nouns ending in all other vowels form plurals with -r. Here are three examples:
Elda "High Elf" >> Eldar "High Elves"
Atan "Man" >> Atani "Men"
Quendë "Elf" >> Quendi "Elves"


Exercise 1:

Form the dual, partitive plural, and nominative plural forms of the following nouns and post them in a comment to test your knowledge. Then give the meaning of each form.

1. Quent "word"
2. Quentalë "account, history"
3. Quenta "tale"
4. Quentaro "narrator"
5. Quildë "quiet" (non-count noun, definitions will make no sense.)
6. Quetil "language"
á lasta ana 86 >> á quetë

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